Thursday, February 6, 2020
Describe the culture (e.g., lifestyles, values, mores, and other characteristics) of at least two minority cultural populations living within your home state - Research Paper Example For the purpose of this paper, I have identified the Mexican and the Indians as the minority cultures living in my area. The reason for choosing these cultures is because they have managed to create a unique identity for themselves despite coming from one of the poorest countries of the world. Their cultures are rich and they often present a unique perspective of life through their customs and traditions. From an education point of view, I need to understand the background of these cultures in in order to interact with its people. For a successful bonding and communication, one needs to have an in-depth knowledge on the culture of the communicator. I will be discussing the educational aspirations, family life and beliefs of the two cultures that I have selected. I have focused on these three since I believe that as an educator, these are the most important aspect of every culture. My role as an educator demands that I should have knowledge on the educational aspirations of the cultures that I would possibly be teaching later on. Also family life deeply affects the academic life of a student and with each culture there is a difference in family life. Beliefs are important to study as most people are very possessive of their religions and as an educator I need to connect which requires me to understand the beliefs of each culture. The Chinese family life is quite unlike the typical family life of the western world. The Chinese respect and honor their families especially their elders. Chinese, like most Asian cultures, still give the maximum authority to the eldest male who is endowed with the highest respect and also the biggest responsibility of earning and looking after the family. While the nucleus family lives together in one household, the extended family is also treated with the respect and love. The Chinese family is complete with aunts, uncles, cousins etc. In
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Kraft and Cadbury Merger Essay What is the role of the government in this merger? What is the impact on the shareholders, what are their thoughts about it and is it a successful merger or not. Other than Kraft and Cadbury four aspects of doing business internationally has been discussed and their influence in an international business career. 1. 1 How and why Kraft identified Cadbury as a potential partner? On 19th January 2010 Kraft the American Giant, acquired Cadbury the most popular and one of the most selling brand in chocolates for . 5bn. The reason for Kraft to identify Cadbury as its potential partner and even after Cadbury rejected its first bid on 7th September 2009, and then came up with a higher bid, was that Kraft wanted to bring in the most loved British Chocolates to USA, because the chocolates that America produces are only loved by AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s and are not so loved around the world, while they targeted the British company because they make better chocolates plus they wanted to get into the British market and to get into the British market remaining into the food industry they could not identify a better option than acquiring Cadbury by merging these two companies one they capture the British market of dairy food plus they introduce their products into Britain and the Cadbury products into USA having the plus points of both cultures. Expected benefits Kraft is the second largest Food beverage company in the world, which produced revenue of 49. billion USD in the year 2010 (Kraftfoodscompany, (2011) and is operating in more than 150 counties worldwide and has an Employee number of around 100,000. Where as Cadbury on the other hand is the second largest Confectionary Company in the world, which produced revenue of 5. 38 billion USD in the year 2008 (Cadbury annual report, 2008) and has a very strong hold in Asia Pacific and Latin America and has an Employee number of around 70,000. When these two giants combine, one American Giant and other British Giant, they both can conquer the food industry if they both are managed well. In 2010 Kraft already made revenue increase of 0. 7 billion USD from 2008 to 2010 after the take over of Cadbury (CNN, 2011). Kraft and Cadbury can both work very well and can avail a lot of benefits from each other provided that both them work together, because Kraft has its own management too large in scale and Cadbury as well. 1. 3 Synergies for both companies involved? After the merger of Kraft and Cadbury, both companies are expected to have revenue synergies and have an increase of the net revenue of up to 5% or more. They are targeting the long-term output for it. Which as a result will increase the net revenue. The combined company (Kraft and Cadbury) is targeting to increase their per share cost in 2011 of approximately $0. 05 and on the basis of cash. These two companies combined can make a lot of revenue. Parliament publication, 2012) Other than that Cadbury has other channels of gaining revenue like gas filling stations, corner shops which are well being forced by Cadbury and on the other hand Kraft has a strong hold on supermarkets and groceries. As they are merged now the overall distribution will be higher for Kraft and Cadbury and their revenue will increase. Both of the companies has opposite markets that they have captured for Cadbury they have a large influence in Asia, Africa, Mexico and Turkey and for Kraft they have more influence in Brazil and China. By combining together they both can capture almost every market around the globe. The total value of the British chocolate confectionery sector amounts to approximately EUR 3. 9 billion. In the UK, the parties activities overlap only in the markets of tablets and pralines. Kraft is active in tablets and pralines mainly with its brands Milka, Toblerone and Terrys chocolate Orange, and Cadbury with its brands Dairy Milk, Roses and Green amp; Black. (http://ec. europa. eu/competition/mergers/cases/decisions/m5644_20100106_20212_en. pdf page 9 ) (Kraft Foods Official 2011 Report) 1. 4 The risks associated with the choice of acquisition as an approach to this particular Ã¢â¬ËpartnershipÃ¢â¬â¢ The first and last risk which is associated with this particular partnership is of keeping their word. The official position of the Fairtrade Foundation is the following: The Fairtrade Foundation is very proud of our relationship with Cadbury, and what we have achieved together, including the conversion of Cadbury Dairy Milk to Fairtrade in the UK and Ireland in 2009, now being extended to three other international markets Canada, Australia and New Zealand. This has had a tremendously positive public response, and is delivering major benefits to cocoa farmers in Ghana, quadrupling the amount they are able to sell on Fairtrade terms in 2010, compared to 2008. The Fairtrade Foundation and Cadbury have a shared vision for the future, and there are contractual commitments in place, which will form part of any intellectual property transfer between Cadbury and Kraft in any takeover. We believe that the progress we have made together in strengthening cocoa farmers to deliver long term sustainability of the cocoa supply chain, along with a fast growing level of consumer demand for Fairtrade products, not just in the UK but globally, present a unique and compelling case for continuing to pursue the Cadbury commitment to their Cocoa Partnership and to Fairtrade, and taking it even further in coming months and years. Treehugger, 2012) According to the Official Statement, they will perform Fairtrade for both the companies and Kraft confirmed that it would uphold CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s commitments to Fairtrade which were that: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dairy Milk will continue to be Fairtrade in the UK and Northern Ireland and in three more markets, Canada, Australia and New Zealand by early 2010; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Green amp; BlackÃ¢â¬â¢s (which is owned by Cadbury) will move its entire range to Fairtrade by the end of 2011. (http://www. publications. parliament. uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmbis/234/234. df ) But no one is quiet happy with the outcome of the merger. Because Kraft did not really act upon what they stated to do before the merger, expression of the former first Minister of Scotland Jack McConnell asked Kraft in the Scottish Parliament to Honour the Fairtrade Part of the deal, he said There have been concerns expressed for many years that Kraft has never shown any enthusiasm for fair trade and therefore this must be under threat as a result of the takeover. (Treehugger, 2012). Warren Buffett isnt too keen now either. Discussing the CEO of Kraft, he said She thinks this is a good deal, I think its a bad deal. Mind you, he is probably not worrying about the fairtrade aspect. Cadburys 6,000 UK workers are also worried, because it is a hi risk for the workers to now work at Cadbury under the American Management which has already influenced the Cadbury management. 1. 5 Feasible alternative? The most feasible alternative to Kraft for Cadbury was Hershey Chocolates, which is also an American Chocolate brand. In 2009 before the hostile takeover of Cadbury by Kraft, Cadbury talked to Hershey personal to include themselves in the bid so they can recommend Hershey over Kraft to its shareholders and are taken over by Hershey, but unfortunately Hershey did not want to be the part of the bidding war over Cadbury with Kraft because Hershey is its self weighing up. Even for Kraft Hershey was a good alternative over Cadbury because both are American Companies and would understand eachother easily rather than taking over a company is a completely different region, Ferrero maker of Rocher chocolate and Nutella is also a very good alternative for Cadbury but at the time of bid according to Trevor Datson the spokesperson for Cadbury said the company had no comment. No one at Ferrero was immediately available for comment. Involvement of National and corporate cultures Neither is the Nation nor the Corporate section is happy with the merger of the both companies, because for public there is a fear of cutting off more than 6000 jobs is Britian and more than 46,000 globally so people working at Cadbury are really afraid to work at it and other than employees the Corporate personal are also in fear of that the world leading brands like Dairy Milk, Flake and Wipsa are at risk with this merger and the shareholder are also not very happy with the $11. 5 bn deal. Critical Evaluation of both the companies about this Partnership Both of the companies had their own management and their own way of doing business around the world. As Kraft is majorly dairy products maker and is being loved by that around the world. Where as Cadbury is also a very well known name in the chocolate industry, because a lot of people in United Kingdom and at other major parts of the world such as Asia and Africa Cadbury is really loved for chocolate. As through the analysis this is a very hostile takeover i. e. , between Kraft and Cadbury, after taking over Cadbury Kraft accepted some of the points that they will do and keep is at it is and after that takeover they did not manage to fulfill those commitments which lead to misunderstanding between these two companies after their merger. As Kraft agreed that they will stick to Faretrade organization and to keep the same cocoa supplier as Cadbury had before and before the merger Cadbury was to close one of their plants but after merger Kraft did not do so and now they are facing these problems which are not very good in the long run for both of the companies. Involvement Of the Government In this hostile takeover not just the employees and shareholders but also the government, had and also has issues with this mergers. With the merger of Kraft Foods and Cadbury a number of important issues have bin highlighted in the way through which the foreign takeovers of UK companies are conducted.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Beer makes up most of the alcoholic beverage industry, with a 74% volume in 2002 (Alcoholic Beverages, 2005). The production of beer around the world has increased from 36.85 billions gallons in 2000 to 38.78 billion gallons in 2003 (Alcoholic Beverages, 2005). Beer production has been a part of society close to the beginning of civilization. A Mesopotamian tablet dating back to 7000 B.C. contains a beer recipe named Ã ¡Ã §wine of the grainÃ ¡Ã ¨ (Alcoholic Beverages, 2005). In 1292, a Czech Republic town produced its first pilsner beer. A prominent beer brand, Pilsner Urquell, brewing dates back to the early thirteenth century. Beer is produced with a mixture of mashed barley, malt, and rice or corn. U.S. brewers use filtration systems as well as add additives to stabilize the foam and allow long lasting freshness. Bottled or canned beer is almost always pasteurized in the container in prevent the yeast from further fermentation. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After 1996, the U.S. beer industry had consistent growth with about 3,500 brands on the market in 2002 (Alcoholic Beverages, 2005). The U.S. exported beer to almost one hundred countries worldwide. The beer industry peaked production with 6.2 billion gallons in 2003 (Alcoholic Beverages, 2005). The U.S. beer industry haws over 300 breweries. However, this industry is dominated by three companies: Anheuser Bush (45% of the industry), Miller Brewing (23% of the industry), and Adolph Coors (10% of the industry) (Overview of the U.S. Beer Industry, 2005). MARKETS BASIC PRODUCT/SERVICE OFFERINGS Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are several different types of commercial beer, consisting of pilsner, lager, ale, stout, light, low-carb, malt liquor, dry, ice-brewed, bottled, draft, and non-alcoholic. Further, the U.S. market has been divided in to three categories: super premium, premium, and popular-priced (Alcoholic Beverages, 2005). In 2002, the U.S. Market Share Reporter stated that light beer consumed 40.1% of the beer market, premium held 25.9% of the market, and popular-priced beer held the remainder. Here is a brief description of the most popular types of commercial beers: ?Ã «Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Lager: a high carbonated beer, containing a low alcohol content, with a pale, medium-hop flavor ?Ã «Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Stout: a thick, dark beer, almost like syrup ?Ã «Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Porter: a sweet, malty flavored brew with a farley high alcohol content ?Ã «Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Malt Liquor: a mostly malt based containing high amounts of fermentable sugars ?Ã «Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Light: a reduced calorie brew made by decreasing the grain amount used when brewing or by adding enzymes to break down the starch content in the beer (Alcoholic Beverages, 2005).
Sunday, January 12, 2020
India Nuclear Medicine Imaging Market India Nuclear Medicine Imaging Market Size by Revenue, 2008-2012 Market Share of Major Players in Indian Nuclear Medicine Equipment Market, India Nuclear Medicine Imaging Market Future Outlook and Projections, 2013- 2. 5. 1. 2. 5. 2. 2012 2. 5. 3. 2017 3. India Medical Imaging Market Trends and Developments Refurbished Medical Imaging Equipment Shift Towards Digital X-ray Increasing Affordable Medical Imaging Equipments 4. 5. India Diagnostic Imaging Services Competitive Landscape, 2012 Growth Drivers Ageing Population Increasing Chronic Diseases Easy Finance Availability Increasing Health Expenditure . Restraints Large Capital Inflows Depreciating Value of Currency 7. India Medical Imaging Market Future Outlook and Projections, 2013-2017 7. 1. Cause and Effect Relationship between Dependent and Independent Variables in the India Medical Imaging Market 8. India Medical Imaging Market Macroeconomic Indicators, 2008-2017 8. 1. 8. 2. India Total Pop ulation, 2008-2017 India Ageing Population, 2008-2017 3 Ã © This is a licensed product of Ken Research and should not be copied 8. 3. 8. 4. 8. 5. 9. India Healthcare Expenditure, 2008-2017 India Health Insurance Premium, 2008-2017 India Personal Disposable Income, 2008-2017 Company Profiles of the Major Players in Indian Medical Imaging Market 9. 1. GE Healthcare Company Overview Business Strategies Financial Performance 9. 2. Phillips Healthcare Company Overview Business Strategies Financial Performance 9. 3. Siemens Healthcare Company Overview Business Strategies Financial Performance 9. 4. Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation Company Overview Business Strategies Financial Performance 9. 5. Shimadzu Corporation Company Overview Business Strategies Financial Performance 9. 6. Mindray Medical International Ltd Company Overview Business Strategies Financial Performance 10. Appendix 4 Ã © This is a licensed product of Ken Research and should not be copied 10. 1. 10. 2. 10. 3. Market Definitions Abbreviations Research Methodology Data Collection Methods Approach Variables (Dependent and Independent) Multi Factor Based Sensitivity Model Final Conclusion 10. 4. Disclaimer 5 Ã © This is a licensed product of Ken Research and should not be copied LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Medical Imaging Equipment Market on the basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2008-2012 Figure 2: IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Medical Imaging Market Segmentation by Equipment Type on the Basis of Revenue, 2008-2012 Figure 3: India X-Ray Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales Revenue in USD Million, 2008-2012 Figure 4: Market Share of Major Players in the India X-Ray Medical Equipment Market, 2012 Figure 5: India X-Ray Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2013-2017 Figure 6: India MRI Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2008-2012 Figure 7: Market Share of Major Players in the India MRI Medical Equipment Market, 2012 Figure 8: India MRI Future Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 20132017 Figure 9: India CT Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2008-2012 Figure 10: India CT Equipment Market Value Breakup by Equipment Type, 2011 Figure 11: Market Share of Major Players in the India CT Medical Equipment Market, 2012 Figure 12: India CT Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2013-2017 Figure 13: India Ultrasound Market on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2008-2012 Figure 14: Market Share of Major Players in the India Ultrasound Medical Equipment Market, 2012 Figure 15: India Ultrasound Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 20132017 Figure 16: India Nuclear Medicine Imaging Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2008-2012 Figure 17: Market Share of Major Players in the India Ultrasound Medical Equipment Market, 2012 Figure 18: India Nuclear Medicine Imaging Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2013-2017 6 Ã © This is a licensed product of Ken Research and should not be copied Figure 19: India Medical Imaging Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2013-2017 Figure 20: India Total Population in Million, 2008-2017 Figure 21: India Ageing Population Size in Million, 2008-2017 Figure 22: India Healthcare Expenditure in USD Million, 2008-2017 Figure 23: India Health Insurance Premium in USD Million, 2008-2017 Figure 24: India Personal Disposable Income in USD Million, 2008-2017 7 Ã © This is a licensed product of Ken Research and should not be copied LIST OF TABLES Table 1: India X-ray Equipment Market by Value in INR Crores, 2011 Table 2: India X-ray Equipment Market by Sales in Units, 2011 Table 3: India X-ray Equipment Imports in USD Million, 2008-2012 Table 4: India X-ray Equipment Exports in USD Million, 2008-2012 Table 5: India MRI Equipment Market by Value in INR Crores, 2011 Table 6: India MRI Equipment Market by Volume in Units, 2011 Table 7: India MRI Equipment Imports in USD Million, 2008-2012 Table 8: India CT Equipment Imports in USD Million, 2008-2012 Table 9: India CT Equipment Exports in USD Million, 2008-2012 Table 10: India Ultrasound Market by Value in INR Crores, 2011 Table 11: India Ultrasound Market by Volume in Units, 2011 Table 12: India Ultrasound Equipment Imports in USD Million, 2008-2012 Table 13: India Ultrasound Equipment Exports in USD Million, 2008-2012 Table 14: India Nuclear Medicine Market by Value in INR Crores, 2010 and 2011 Table 15: India Nuclear Medicine Market by Sales in Units, 2010 and 2011 Table 16: I ndia Diagnostic Imaging Services Competitive Landscape, 2012 Table 17: Cause and Effect Relationship Analysis between Industry Factors and Expected Medical Imaging Industry Prospects Table 18: Correlation Matrix for India Medical Imaging Market Table 19: Regression Coefficients Output 8 Ã © This is a licensed product of Ken Research and should not be copied INDIA MEDICAL IMAGING MARKET INDIA MEDICAL IMAGING MARKET INTRODUCTION AND MARKET SIZE, 2008-2012 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. medical imaging market grew at a CAGR of ~% from USD ~ million in 2008 to USD ~ million in 2012. This growth was primarily due to the increasing establishments of healthcare units including hospitals and diagnostic centers. A lot of venture capital firms are actively participating in the growth scenario by providing the optimal financial support Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Figure: IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Medical Imaging Equipment Market on the basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2008-2012 600. 0 500. 0 400. 0 300. 0 200. 0 100. 0 0. 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012E 329. 5 INDIA MRI MARKET SIZE BY REVENUE, 2008-2012 IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s MRI market is the largest medical imaging equipment market in the country. The market has showcased healthy growth during the last four years and has grown at a CAGR of around ~% from USD 89. 3 million in 2008 to USD ~ million in 2012. MRI is important equipment which is used for detection of internal bleeding and swelling in soft tissues of the human body such as brain, heart and others. The equipment also provides Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 9 Ã © This is a licensed product of Ken Research and should not be copied Figure: India MRI Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2008-2012 140. 0 120. 0 100. 0 USD Million 80. 0 60. 0 40. 0 20. 0 0. 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012E 89. 3 Table 1: India MRI Equipment Market by Volume in Units, 2011 Type of MRI Equipment 3 Tesla 1. 5 Tesla, Economy 1. 5 Tesla MRI (Mid and High end) 0. 2 to 0. 5 Tesla Refurbished Total MRI Equipment Market by Sales in Units, 2011 INDIA COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY MARKET COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE MARKET SHARE OF MAJOR PLAYERS IN INDIAN CT EQUIPMENT MARKET 10 Ã © This is a licensed product of Ken Research and should not be copied Siemens healthcare is a market leader in the CT medical imaging equipment market with ~% during 2012. The major reason behind is efficient and price competitive products coupled with adequate networking and marketing executives to support the sales. Its SOMATOM is the top selling product in the market. Following the second largest player is Phillips healthcare with ~% market share with itsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Figure: Market Share of Major Players in the India CT Medical Equipment Market, 2012 Siemens Philips GE Healthcare Others INDIA ULTRASOUND IMPORTS AND EXPORTS IMPORTS IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s import market for the ultrasound equipment have been on the rise from the past few years and witnessed a CAGR of around ~% during 2008-2012 where it grew from USD ~ million in 2008 to USD ~ million in 2012. The consistent growth in the demand for ultrasound equipments in India during 2008-2012 has primarily been responsible for Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Table: India Ultrasound Equipment Imports in USD Million, 2008-2012 Year Imports (USD million) 2008 2009 72. 1 2010 2011 2012E 11 Ã © This is a licensed product of Ken Research and should not be copied EXPORTS IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ultrasound exports has grown at a CAGR of around ~% during 2008-2012 from USD 19. million in 2008 to USD ~ million in 2012. The major players such as GE, Siemens and others have been the major exporters Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Table: India Ultrasound Equipment Exports in USD Million, 2008-2012 Year Exports (USD million) 2008 19. 2 2009 2010 2011 2012E INDIA NUC LEAR MEDICINE IMAGING MARKET FUTURE OUTLOOK AND PROJECTIONS, 2013-2017 The nuclear medicine imaging equipment market of India is expected to continue to grow strongly with a double digit year-on-year growth until 2017. The market is expected to reach to USD ~ million in 2017 from USD ~ million in 2012 at a CAGR of ~% during 2012-2017. Moreover, in 2013 the market is estimated to grow by Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Figure: India Nuclear Medicine Imaging Market Size on the Basis of Domestic Sales in USD Million, 2013-2017 160. 0 140. 0 120. 0 USD Million 100. 0 80. 0 60. 0 40. 0 20. 0 0. 0 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 142. 0 12 Ã © This is a licensed product of Ken Research and should not be copied DISCLAIMER The research reports provided by Ken Research are for the personal information of the authorized recipient and is not for public distribution and should not be reproduced or redistributed without prior permission. You are permitted to print or download extracts from this material for your personal use only. None of this material may be used for any commercial or public use. The information provided in the research documents is from publicly available data and other sources, which are reliable. Efforts are made to try and ensure accuracy of data. 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Saturday, January 4, 2020
The saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) was discovered as skeletal remains in May of 1992 by surveyors from the Ministry of Forestry of Vietnam and the World Wildlife Fund who were mapping the Vu Quang Nature Reserve of north-central Vietnam. At the time of its discovery, the saola was the first large mammal new to science since the 1940s. Fast Facts: Saola Scientific Name: Pseudoryx nghetinhensisCommon Name(s): Saola, Asian unicorn, Vu Quang bovid, Vu Quang ox, spindlehornBasic Animal Group: MammalSize: 35 inches at the shoulder, about 4.9 feet in lengthWeight: 176Ã¢â¬â220 poundsLifespan: 10Ã¢â¬â15 yearsDiet:Ã HerbivoreHabitat: Forests in the Annamite mountain range between Vietnam and LaosPopulation: 100Ã¢â¬â750; under 100 are in a protected areaConservation Status: Critically Endangered Description The saola (pronounced sow-la and also known as the Asian unicorn or the Vu Quang bovid) has two long, straight, parallel horns that can reach 20 inches in length. Horns are found on both males and females. The saolas fur is sleek and dark brown in color with dappled white markings on the face. It resembles an antelope, but DNA has proven they are more closely related to cow speciesÃ¢â¬âwhich is why they were designated Pseudoryx, or false antelope. Saola have large maxillary glands on the muzzle, which are thought to be used to mark territory and attract mates. The saola stands about 35 inches at the shoulder and has been estimated at 4.9 feet long and 176 to 220 pounds in weight. The first living examples studied were two calves captured in 1994: The male died within a few days, but the female calf lived long enough to be taken to Hanoi for observation. She was small, about 4Ã¢â¬â5 months old and weighed about 40 pounds, with large eyes and a fluffy tail. All known captive saola have died, leading to the belief that this species cannot live in captivity. The team found a skull with unusual long, straight horns in a hunters home and knew it was something extraordinary, reported the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in 1993. The find proved to be the first large mammal new to science in more than 50 years and one of the most spectacular zoological discoveries of the 20th century. Habitat and Range The saola is only known from the slopes of the Annamite Mountains, a restricted mountainous jungle on the northwest-southeast border between Vietnam and the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (Laos). The region is a subtropical/tropical moist environment which is characterized by evergreen or mixed evergreen and deciduous woodlands, and the species seems to prefer edge zones of the forests. Saola are presumed to reside in mountain forests during the wet seasons and move down to the lowlands in winter. The species is presumed to have been formerly distributed in wet forests at low elevations, but these areas are now densely populated, degraded, and fragmented. Low population numbers make distribution particularly patchy. The saola has rarely been seen alive since its discovery and is already considered critically endangered. Scientists have categorically documented saola in the wild on only four occasions to date. Diet and Behavior Local villagers have reported that the saola browses on leafy plants, fig leaves, and stems along rivers and animal trails; the calf captured in 1994 ate Homalomena aromatica, an herb with heart-shaped leaves. The bovine appears to be mainly solitary, although it has been seen in groups of two to three and rarely in groups of six or seven. It is possible that they are territorial, marking their territory from their pre-maxillary gland; alternatively, they may have a relatively large home range that allows them to move between areas in response to seasonal changes. Most of the saola killed by the locals have been found in the winter when they are in lowland habitats near to the villages. Reproduction and Offspring In Laos, births are said to occur at the beginning of the rains, between April and June. Gestation is estimated to last about eight months, the births may be single, and lifespan is estimated at 5Ã¢â¬â10 years. Little else is known about the offspring of this critically endangered species. Threats The saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) is listed as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Formal surveys have yet to be taken to determine accurate population numbers, but the IUCN estimates the total population to be between 70 and 750 and declining. About 100 animals reside in protected areas. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) has prioritized the saolas survival, saying, Its rarity, distinctiveness, and vulnerability make it one of the greatest priorities for conservation in the Indochina region. Conservation Status IN 2006, the IUCN Species Survival Commissions Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group created the Saola Working Group to protect the saola and their habitat. WWF has been involved with the protection of the saola since its discovery, focused on strengthening and establishing protected areas as well as research, community-based forest management, and strengthening law enforcement. Management of Vu Quang Nature Reserve where the saola was discovered has improved in recent years. Two new adjacent saola reserves have been established in Thua-Thien Hue and Quang Nam provinces. The WWF has been involved in the setting up and management of protected areas and continues to work on projects in the region. Only recently discovered, saola are already extremely threatened, says Dr. Barney Long, WWF Asian species expert. At a time when species extinction on the planet has accelerated, we can work together to snatch this one back from the edge of extinction. Saolas and Humans The main threats to the saola are hunting and fragmentation of its range through habitat loss. Local villagers report that saola are often caught accidentally in snares set in the forest for wild boar, sambar, or muntjac deerÃ¢â¬âthe snares are set for subsistence use and crop protection. In general, increases in the numbers of lowland people hunting to supply the illegal trade in wildlife has led to a massive increase in hunting, driven by traditional medicine demand in China and restaurant and food markets in Vietnam and Laos; but as a newly discovered animal, it is not currently a specific target for either the medicinal or food market as of yet. However, according to WWF, As forests disappear under the chainsaw to make way for agriculture, plantations, and infrastructure, saola are being squeezed into smaller spaces. The added pressure from rapid and large-scale infrastructure in the region is also fragmenting saola habitat. Conservationists are concerned that this is allowing hunters easy access to the once untouched forest of the saola and may reduce genetic diversity in the future. Sources Callaway, Ewan. A Bloody Boon for Conservation: Leeches Provide Traces of DNA from Other Species. Nature 484.7395 (2012): 424Ã¢â¬â25. Print.Hassanin, Alexandre, and Emmanuel J. P. Douzery. Evolutionary Affinities of the Enigmatic Saola (Pseudoryx Nghetinhensis) in the Context of the Molecular Phylogeny of Bovidae. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 266.1422 (1999): 893Ã¢â¬â900. Print.Phommachanh, Chanthasone, et al. Habitat Use of the Saola Pseudoryx Nghetinhensis (Mammalia; Bovidae) Based on Local Sightings in the Northern Annamite Mountains of Lao PDR. Tropical Conservation Science 10 (2017): 1940082917713014. Print.Tilker, Andrew, et al. Saving the Saola from Extinction. Science 357.6357 (2017): 1248Ã¢â¬â48. Print.Whitfield, John. A Saola Poses for the Camera. Nature 396.6710 (1998): 410. Print.
Friday, December 27, 2019
New Delhi is both the capital and center of government of India and is the center of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is located in northern India within the metropolis of Delhi and it is one of the nine districts of Delhi. It has a total area of 16.5 square miles (42.7 sq km) and it is considered one of the fastest growing cities in the world.The city of New Delhi is known for its vulnerability to climate change and global warming (its temperatures are predicted to rise by 2ÃÅ¡C by 2030 due to its intense growth and industrialization) and a building collapse which killed at least 65 people on November 16, 2010. Top Ten Facts to Know About Indias Capital City New Delhi itself was not established until 1912 when the British moved Indias capital city from Calcutta (now called Kolkata) to Delhi in December 1911. At that time the British government in India decided it wanted to build a new city to serve as its capital which would be adjacent to Delhi and known as New Delhi. New Delhi was completed in 1931 and the old city became known as Old Delhi.In 1947 India gained independence from the British and New Delhi was given some limited independence. At that time it was administered by a Chief Commissioner who was appointed by the Indian government. In 1956, Delhi became a union territory and a Lieutenant Governor began the administration of the region. In 1991 the Constitution Act changed the Union Territory of Delhi to the National Capital Territory of Delhi.Today, New Delhi is located within theÃ metropolis of Delhi and it still serves as the capital city of India. It is at the center of the nine districts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Commonly, the metropolis of Delhi is known as New Delhi, although New Delhi only officially represents a district or city within Delhi.New Delhi itself is governed by a municipal government that is called the New Delhi Municipal Council, whereas other areas within Delhi are governed by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi.New Delhi today is one of the fastest growing cities in both India and the world. It is the government, commercial and financial center of India. Governmental employees represent a large portion of the citys workforce, while much of the rest of the citys population is employed in the expanding service sector. The main industries in New Delhi include information technology, telecommunications, and tourism.The city of New Delhi had a population of 295,000 in 2001 but metropolitan Delhi had a population of over 13 million. Most of the people living in New Delhi practice Hinduism (86.8%) but there are also large Muslim, Sikh, Jain and Christian communities in t he city.New Delhi is located on the Indo-Gangetic Plain in northern India. Since it sits on this plain, most of the city is relatively flat. It is also located in the floodplains of several large rivers, but none of them actually flow through the city. In addition, New Delhi is prone to major earthquakes.The climate of New Delhi is considered humid subtropical and it is highly influenced by the seasonal monsoon. It has long, hot summers and cool, dry winters. The average January low temperature is 45Ã °F (7Ã °C) and the average May (the hottest month of the year) high temperature is 102Ã °F (39Ã °C). Precipitation is highest in July and August.When it was determined that New Delhi would be built in 1912, the British architect Edwin Lutyens came up with plans for much of the city. As a result, New Delhi is highly planned and it is built around two promenades -- the Rajpath and Janpath. The Rashtrapati Bhaven or the center of the Indian government is located in the center of New D elhi.New Delhi is also considered a cultural center of India. It has many historic buildings, festivals to go along with holidays like Republic Day and Independence Day as well as many religious festivals. To learn more about New Delhi and metropolitan Delhi, visit the citysÃ official government website.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Over the last semester. I ve learned a lot about sociology and how it affects me. Here are 10 concept that have impacted in my life. In our first unit of sociology, I felt I could relate with the term social network, The term social network refers to the people who are linked to one another(Henslin,116.)Social networks include everyone you know. I can relate to social networking because I m on a social salsa team. When I joined my dance team , we all had the same passion, the love of dance. After a few years of performing and hanging with the same clique all the time for they have the same interests as me. After a while we all seemed to cluster together and they are now more than just a clique to me they are my fiends. Another concept of sociology that I felt that I could relate to is ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism a tendency to use our own groups way of doing things as a yard stick for judging others( Henslin, 37.)Being Puerto Rican and growing up in a Caucasian society, I felt because of my culture that I should try to associate with my same race or people of my same ethnicity. Because of this I found myself feeling as if my race was better in some way, but then I learned that was normal for every race. Because of this I feel I can relate to the term ethnocentrism. Furthermore, another concept that i feel has impacted my life is the revolution of modern day technology. The new technology perspective which refers to an emerging technology that has significantShow MoreRelatedMy Role As A Society860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages(pg.16) really help me realize and opened my eyes that I want to make a difference. And in order for me to make a difference I need to have the knowledge to what I can do to help others. And this is why I decided to go to college. 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The micro level analysis is based on small groups and individuals versus the macro level which is viewedRead MoreRelationship Between Personal Troubles And Public Issues Essay1315 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe first chapter begins with a question; what is sociology? According to the book, sociology is the scientific study of human social relationships, groups, and societies. Basically, this science focuses of humans and their relationships, unlike the other sciences. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s crazy to think that a science would even focus on how we interact. This is called social embeddedness, how different forms of human behavior shapes our social relationships. For example, politics, if one of your best friends saysRead MoreGraduation Speech : Senior Honors Program1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbecause I think it will be an excellent way to complete my experience as a sociology undergraduate student at UC Berkeley. 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